This guide assumes that pyHanko is installed with all optional dependencies, including those required for PKCS#11 support and image support.

Signing PDF files

Signing PDF files using pyHanko can be very simple or somewhat complicated, depending on the specific requirements of your use case. PyHanko offers support for both visible and invisible signatures, several baseline PAdES profiles, seed values, and creating signatures using PKCS#11 devices.

Some background on PDF signatures

In order to properly understand the way pyHanko operates, having some background on the way PDF signatures work is useful. The goal of this subsection is to provide a bird’s eye view, and covers only the bare minimum. For further details, please refer to the relevant sections of the ISO 32000 standard(s).

A PDF signature is always contained in a signature field in the PDF’s form structure. Freeware PDF readers that do not have form editing functionality will typically not allow you to manipulate signature fields directly, but might allow you to fill existing form fields with a signature, or create a signature together with its corresponding form field. Using pyHanko, you can both insert new (empty) signature fields, and fill in existing ones.

Separate from the signature field containing it, a signature may or may not have an appearance associated with it. Signatures without such an appearance are referred to as invisible signatures. Invisible signatures have the advantage of being comparatively simpler to implement and configure, but when a PDF containing an invisible signature is opened in a reader application without signature support, it may not be visually obvious that the PDF file even contains a signature at all.

The signature object itself contains some PDF-specific metadata, such as

  • the byte range of the file that it covers;

  • the hash function used to compute the document hash to be signed;

  • a modification policy that indicates the ways in which the file can still be modified.

The actual cryptographic signature is embedded as a CMS object. General CMS objects are defined in RFC 5652, but only a limited subset is meaningful in PDF. When creating a signature, the signer is authenticated using the private key associated with an X.509 certificate, as issued by most common PKI authorities nowadays. The precise way this private key is provisioned is immaterial: it can be read from a file on disk, or the signature can be generated by a hardware token; this has no impact on the structure of the signature object in the file.

In a typical signed PDF file with only one signature, the signed byte range covers the entire document, except for the area containing the actual CMS data of the signature. However, there are a number of legitimate reasons why this may not be the case:

  • documents containing multiple signatures and/or timestamps;

  • signatures that allow further modification, such as form filling or annotation.

Generally speaking, the signer decides what modifications are still permitted after a signature is made1.

The cryptographically informed reader might ask how it is at all possible to modify a file without invalidating the signature. After all, hash functions are supposed to prevent exactly this kind of thing. The answer here lies in the incremental update feature of the PDF standard. The specification allows for updating files by appending data to the end of the file, keeping the original bytes in place. These incremental update sections can create and modify existing objects in the file, while still preserving the original version in some form. Such changes are typically opaque to the user that views the file. The byte range attached to the signature ensures that the document hash can still be computed over the original data, and thus the integrity of the signature can still be validated.

However, since incremental updates allow the final rendered document to be modified in essentially arbitrary ways, the onus is on the validator to ensure that all such incremental updates made after a signature was created actually are “legitimate” changes. What precisely constitutes a “legitimate” change depends on the signature’s modification policy, but is not rigorously defined in the standard2. It goes without saying that this has led to various exploits where PDF readers could be duped into allowing illicit modifications to signed PDF files without raising suspicion. As a consequence of this, some signature validation tools do not even bother to do any such validation, and simply reject all signatures in documents that have been modified through incremental updates.

See Validating PDF signatures for an overview of pyHanko’s signature validation features.


By default, pyHanko uses incremental updates for all operations, regardless of the presence of earlier signatures in the file.

Creating signature fields

Adding new (empty) signature fields is done through the addfields subcommand of pyhanko sign. The CLI only allows you to specify the page and coordinates of the field, but more advanced properties and metadata can be manipulated through the API.

The syntax of the addfields subcommand is as follows:

pyhanko sign addfields --field  PAGE/X1,Y1,X2,Y2/NAME input.pdf output.pdf

The page numbering starts at 1, and the numbers specify the coordinates of two opposing corners of the bounding box of the signature field. The coordinates are Cartesian, i.e. the y-coordinate increases from bottom to top. Multiple signature fields may be created in one command, by passing the last argument multiple times.


You can specify page numbers “in reverse” by providing a negative number for the PAGE entry. With this convention, page -1 refers to the last page of the document, page -2 the second-to-last, etc.


Creating empty signature fields ahead of time isn’t always necessary. PyHanko’s signing functionality can also create them together with a signature, and Adobe Reader offers similar conveniences. As such, this feature is mainly useful to create fields for other people to sign.

Creating simple signatures

All operations relating to digital signatures are performed using the pyhanko sign subcommand. The relevant command group for adding signatures is pyhanko sign addsig.


The commands explained in this subsection do not attempt to validate the signer’s certificate by default. You’ll have to take care of that yourself, either through your PDF reader of choice, or the validation functionality in pyHanko.

Signing a PDF file using key material on disk

There are two ways to sign a PDF file using a key and a certificate stored on disk. The signing is performed in the exact same way in either case, but the format in which the key material is stored differs somewhat.

To sign a file with key material sourced from loose PEM or DER-encoded files, the pemder subcommand is used.

pyhanko sign addsig --field Sig1 pemder \
    --key key.pem --cert cert.pem input.pdf output.pdf

This would create a signature in input.pdf in the signature field Sig1 (which will be created if it doesn’t exist), with a private key loaded from key.pem, and a corresponding certificate loaded from cert.pem. The result is then saved to output.pdf. Note that the --field parameter is optional if the input file contains a single unfilled signature field.


The --field parameter also accepts parameters of the form passed to addfields, see Creating signature fields.

You will be prompted for a passphrase to unlock the private key, which can be read from another file using --passfile.

The same result can be obtained using data from a PKCS#12 file (these usually have a .pfx or .p12 extension) as follows:

pyhanko sign addsig --field Sig1 pkcs12 \
    input.pdf output.pdf secrets.pfx

By default, these calls create invisible signature fields, but if the field specified using the --field parameter exists and has a widget associated with it, a simple default appearance will be generated (see Fig. 1).

In many cases, you may want to embed extra certificates (e.g. for intermediate certificate authorities) into your signature, to facilitate validation. This can be accomplished using the --chain flag to either subcommand. When using the pkcs12 subcommand, pyHanko will automatically embed any extra certificates found in the PKCS#12 archive passed in.

The default signature appearance.

Fig. 1 The default appearance of a (visible) signature in pyHanko.

Signing a PDF file using a PKCS#11 token

PyHanko also supports creating signatures using PKCS#11 devices. In order to do so, you’ll need the following information:

  • The path to the PKCS#11 module, which is typically a shared object library (.so, .dll or .dylib, depending on your operating system)

  • The label of the PKCS#11 token you’re accessing.

  • The PKCS#11 label(s) of the certificate and key you’re using, stored in the token. If the key and certificate labels are the same, you can omit the key label.

Most of these settings can be stored in the configuration file as well, see Named PKCS#11 setups.

With this information, producing a basic signature isn’t very hard:

pyhanko sign addsig pkcs11 --lib /path/to/module.so \
    --token-label testrsa --cert-label signer document.pdf output.pdf

Have a look at pyhanko sign addsig pkcs11 --help for a full list of options.

Signing a PDF file using a Belgian eID card

To sign a PDF file using your eID card, use the beid subcommand to addsig, with the --lib parameter to tell pyHanko where to look for the eID PKCS#11 library.


Of course, you can also use the pkcs11 subcommand, but beid provides an extra layer of convenience.

On Linux, it is named libbeidpkcs11.so and can usually be found under /usr/lib or /usr/local/lib. On macOS, it is named libbeidpkcs11.dylib, and can similarly be found under /usr/local/lib. The Windows version is typically installed to C:\Windows\System32 and is called beidpkcs11.dll.

On Linux, this boils down to the following:

pyhanko sign addsig --field Sig1 beid \
    --lib /path/to/libbeidpkcs11.so input.pdf output.pdf

On all platforms, the eID middleware will prompt you to enter your PIN to create the signature.


This command will produce a non-repudiable signature using the ‘Signature’ certificate on your eID card (as opposed to the ‘Authentication’ certificate). These signatures are legally equivalent to a normal “wet” signature wherever they are allowed, so use them with care.

In particular, you should only allow software you trust3 to use the ‘Signature’ certificate!


You should also be aware that your national registry number (rijksregisternummer, no. de registre national) is embedded into the metadata of the signature certificate on your eID card4. As such, it can also be read off from any digital signature you create. While national registry numbers aren’t secret per se, they are nevertheless often considered sensitive personal information, so you may want to be careful where you send documents containing your eID signature or that of someone else.

Creating signatures with long lifetimes


A simple PDF signature—or any CMS signature for that matter—is only cryptographically valid insofar as the certificate of the signer is valid. In most common trust models, this means that the signature ceases to be meaningful together with the expiration of the signer certificate, or the latter’s revocation.

The principal reason for this is the fact that it is no longer practical to verify whether a certificate was valid at the time of signing, if validation happens after the certificate already expired or was revoked. This, in turn, has to do with the fact that it is not always reasonable for certificate authorities to publicly supply historical validity proofs for all certificates they ever signed at all possible points in time.

Hence, in order for a signature to remain valid long after signing, the signer needs to supply two additional pieces of data:

  1. a trusted timestamp signed by a time stamping authority (TSA), to prove the time of signing to the validator;

  2. revocation information (relevant CRLs or OCSP responses) for all certificates in the chain of trust of the signer’s certificate, and of the TSA.

For both of these, it is crucial that the relevant data is collected at the time of signing and embedded into the signed document. The revocation information in particular can be delicate, since the validator needs to be able to verify the validity of not only the signer’s certificate, but also that of all issuers in the chain of trust, the OCSP responder’s certificates used to sign the embedded OCSP responses, etc.

Time stamp tokens are commonly obtained from TSA’s via the HTTP-based protocol specified in RFC 3161.

Within the PDF standard, there are two broad categories of such long-lived signatures.

  • Signers can opt to embed revocation information into the CMS data structure of the signature, as a signed attribute.

    • In this case, the revocation info is a signed attribute, protected from tampering by the signer’s own signature.

    • This scheme uses Adobe-specific extensions to the CMS standard, which are explicitly defined in the PDF specification, but may not be supported by generic CMS tools that are unaware of PDF.

  • Signers can opt to embed revocation information into the Document Security Store (DSS).

    • In this case the revocation info is (a priori) not protected by a signature, although this is often remedied by appending a document time stamp after updating the DSS (see also Long-term archival (LTA) needs).

    • The above approach has the convenient side effect that it can be used to ‘fix’ non-LTV-enabled signatures by embedding the required revocation information after the fact, together with a document timestamp. Obviously, this is predicated on the certificate’s still being valid when the revocation information is compiled. This workflow is not guaranteed to be acceptable in all X.509 validation models, but is supported in pyHanko through the ltvfix subcommand; see Adding validation data to an existing signature.

    • This approach is used in the PAdES baseline profiles B-LT and B-LTA defined by ETSI, and the (mildly modified) versions subsumed into ISO 32000-2 (PDF 2.0). As such, it is not part of ISO 32000-1 ‘proper’.


The author generally prefers the DSS-based signature profiles over the legacy approach based on CMS attributes, but both are supported in pyHanko.

Timestamps in pyHanko

Embedding a timestamp token into a signature using pyHanko is as simple as passing the --timestamp-url parameter to addsig. The URL should resolve to an endpoint that responds to the HTTP-based protocol described in RFC 3161.

pyhanko sign addsig --field Sig1 --timestamp-url http://tsa.example.com \
    pemder --key key.pem --cert cert.pem input.pdf output.pdf


In the CLI, only public time stamping servers are supported right now (i.e. those that do not require authentication). The API is more flexible.

Embedding revocation info with pyHanko

In order to embed validation info, use the --with-validation-info flag to the addsig command.

pyhanko sign addsig --field Sig1 --timestamp-url http://tsa.example.com \
    --with-validation-info --use-pades pemder \
    --key key.pem --cert cert.pem input.pdf output.pdf

This will validate the signer’s signature, and embed the necessary revocation information into the signature. The resulting signature complies with the PAdES B-LT baseline profile. If you want to embed the revocation data into the CMS object instead of the document security store (see above), leave off the --use-pades flag.

Using the --trust, --trust-replace and --other-certs parameters, it is possible to fine tune the validation context that will be used to embed the validation data. You can also predefine validation contexts in the configuration file, and select them using the --validation-context parameter. See Named validation contexts for further information.


By default, pyHanko requires signer certificates to have the non-repudiation key usage extension bit set on signer certificates. If this is not suitable for your use case, take a look at Key usage settings.

Long-term archival (LTA) needs

The observant reader may have noticed that embedding revocation information together with a timestamp merely _shifts_ the validation problem: what if the TSA certificate used to sign the timestamp token is already expired by the time we try to validate the signature?

The PAdES B-LTA scheme provides a solution for this issue: by appending a new document timestamp whenever the most recent one comes close to expiring, we can produce a chain of timestamps that allows us to ensure the validity of both the signatures and their corresponding revocation data essentially indefinitely.

This does, however, require ‘active’ maintenance of the document. PyHanko provides for this through the ltaupdate subcommand of pyhanko sign.

pyhanko sign ltaupdate --timestamp-url http://tsa.example.com input.pdf

Note that ltaupdate modifies files in-place. It is also unnecessary to provide a field name for the new timestamp; the software will automatically generate one using Python’s uuid module.


It is important to note that pyHanko only validates the outermost timestamp when performing an LTA update. This means that the “garbage in, garbage out” principle is in effect: if the timestamp chain was already broken elsewhere in the input document, running ltaupdate will not detect that, let alone fix it.


The reader may also wonder what happens if the trust anchor that guaranteed the signer’s certificate at the time of signing happens to expire. Answering this question is technically beyond the specifications of the PKI system, since root certificates are trusted by fiat, and (by definition) do not have some higher authority backing them to enforce their validity constraints.

Some hold the view that expiration dates on trust anchors should be taken as mere suggestions rather than hard cutoffs. Regardless of the merits of this view in general, for the purposes of point-in-time validation, the only sensible answer seems to be to leave this judgment call up to the discretion of the validator.

It is also useful to note that some certificate authorities implement key rollover by cross-signing their new roots with their old roots and vice-versa. Provided these cross-signed certificates are available to the validator, these should allow older chains of trust to be validated against the newer roots.

Customising signature appearances

To a limited degree, the appearance of a visible signature made with pyHanko can be customised. You can specify a named style using the --style-name parameter to addsig:

pyhanko sign addsig --field Sig1 --style-name mystyle pemder \
    --key key.pem --cert cert.pem input.pdf output.pdf

This assumes that a style named mystyle is available in the configuration file. Defining styles works the same way as pyHanko’s stamping functionality; see Stamping PDF files and Styles for stamping and signature appearances for details.



There are some legitimate modifications that cannot be prohibited by any document modification policy, such as the addition of document timestamps and updates to the document security store.


The author has it on good authority that a rigorous incremental update validation specification is beyond the scope of the PDF standard itself.


This obviously also applies to pyHanko itself; be aware that pyHanko’s license doesn’t make any fitness-for-purpose guarantees, so making sure you know what you’re running is 100% your own responsibility.


The certificate’s serial number is in fact equal to the holder’s national registry number.